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Index

        Note: Page numbers of article titles are in boldface type.

        A

        AAD. See Acute aortic dissection (AAD)
        ACSs. See Acute coronary syndromes (ACSs)
        Acute anemia
         TAVR and, 612–614
        Acute aortic dissection (AAD)
         clinical presentation of, 494–495
         diagnosis of, 494–495
         initial evaluation of, 494–495
         initial therapy for, 495–497
         mortality associated with, 495
         risk factors for, 494–495
         subtypes of, 493
        Acute aortic syndromes, 493–501
        Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema
         NIV for, 627–630
        Acute coronary syndromes (ACSs)
         antithrombotic therapy for
        in CCU, 536–538
         PAC in, 552–554
        mechanical complications–related, 555–556
        Acute kidney injury (AKI)
         TAVR and, 615–616
        Acute mitral regurgitation (MR)
         AMI and, 524–527
        diagnosis of, 525–526
        introduction, 524–525
        outcomes of, 526–527
        pathophysiology of, 525
        treatment of, 526
        Acute myocardial infarction (AMI)
         mechanical complications of, 519–531, 575–576. See also specific complications, e.g., Ventricular septal rupture
        acute MR, 524–527
        free wall rupture, 575
        LV, 527–528
        introduction, 519
        ventricular septal rupture, 519–524
         VT in patients with, 599
        Acute pulmonary embolism (PE)
         in CCU
        management of, 539–540
        Advanced care planning
         in cardiovascular ICU
        ethical issues related to, 659
        AF. See Atrial fibrillation (AF)
        AKI. See Acute kidney injury (AKI)
        AMI. See Acute myocardial infarction (AMI)
        Anemia
         acute
        TAVR and, 612–614
        Anti-inflammatory therapies
         in CS management, 576
        Anticoagulant(s)
         in CCU, 533–544
        antiplatelet agents with, 538
        for cardioversion, 539
        conventional agents
        limitations of, 535–536
        described, 533–535
        newer agents, 536
        perioperative use, 541
        Anticoagulation
         long-term
        in PE management, 513–514
         in PE management, 508
        Antiplatelet agents
         in CCU, 533–544
        for acute VTE, 539
        for AF, 538–539
        anticoagulants with, 538
        conventional agents, 534
        described, 533–534
        newer agents, 534–535
        perioperative use, 541
        timing of, 538
        Antithrombotic therapy
         in CCU, 536–538
        Arrhythmia(s)
         mechanical circulatory support for, 586–587
         ventricular, 595–605. See also Ventricular arrhythmias
        Atrial fibrillation (AF)
         in CCU
        management of, 538–539
         new-onset
        TAVR and, 614–615

        B

        Balloon floatation catheter
         placement of
        and hemodynamic measurements, 546–550
        Bleeding
         control of
        in CCU, 540–541
         mechanical circulatory support for, 587–588
        Brain injury
         in CA
        pathophysiology of, 638
        Breathing
         spontaneous
        cardiovascular system effects of, 620–621
        Brugada syndrome
         VT in patients with, 600

        C

        CA. See Cardiac arrest (CA)
        Cardiac arrest (CA)
         brain injury in
        pathophysiology of, 638
         hypothermia after
        with initial nonshockable rhythm, 640
        with initial shockable rhythm, 639–640
         targeted temperature management in survivors of, 637–655. See also Mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH), after CA
        historical perspective, 637–640
        introduction, 637
        Cardiac care unit (CCU)
         acute DVT in
        management of, 539
         acute medical illness in
        thromboprophylaxis for, 540
         acute PE in
        management of, 539–540
         acute VTE in
        management of, 539
         AF in
        management of, 538–539
         antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents in, 533–544. See also Anticoagulant(s), in CCU; Antiplatelet agents, in CCU
         antithrombotic therapy in, 536–538
         bleeding control in, 540–541
         mechanical heart valve prostheses in, 540
         perioperative use, 541
         triple therapy in, 540
        Cardiac catheterization laboratory
         PAC in, 552
        Cardiac conditions
         MTH after CA and, 646
        Cardiac critical care
         after TAVR, 607–618. See also Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), cardiac critical care after
         evolution of, 485–492
        contemporary, 487–489
        early years, 485–486
        middle ages, 486–487
        multidisciplinary approach to increasingly complex patients, 489–490
        Cardiac intensive care unit (CICU)
         ventilator management in, 619–636
        cardiac dysfunction, 623
        for congestive cardiac failure and acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema
        NIV use, 627–630
        considerations related to, 626–627
        intermittent positive pressure ventilation effects on cardiovascular system, 621–622
        introduction, 619
        MV
        indications for, 623–624
        oxygenation considerations in, 624–626
        PEEP effects on cardiovascular system, 622–623
        physiologic basis of, 620
        spontaneous breathing effects on cardiovascular system, 620–621
        weaning issues, 630–633
        Cardiac output
         determination of
        PAC in, 550–552
        Cardiac surgery
         VT in patients after, 600
        Cardiogenic shock (CS), 567–580
         causes of, 567–568
         described, 567
         diagnosis of, 570
         future directions in, 576–577
         introduction, 567
         management of
        advanced mechanical circulatory support in, 574–575
        CentriMag in, 575
        ECMO in, 574–575
        general considerations in, 570
        hemodynamic monitoring in, 571
        IABP in, 573–574
        Impella Recover 2.5 in, 574
        initial therapy in, 571
        novel therapies in, 576–577
        percutaneous LV assist devices in, 574
        pharmacologic, 572–573
        randomized trials of pVADs in, 574
        reperfusion in, 571–572
        TandemHeart in, 574
         outcomes of, 568–569
         pathophysiology of, 569–570
        Cardiomyopathy
         ischemic
        revascularized patients with
        VT in, 599
         nonischemic
        VT in patients with, 599–600
        Cardiovascular disease
         weaning issues in patients with, 630
        Cardiovascular intensive care unit (ICU)
         communication issues in, 664–665
         from coronary care unit to, 485–492. See also Cardiac critical care, evolution of
         ethical issues in, 657–661
        advanced care planning and shared decision making, 659
        described, 658–659
        futility-related, 660–661
        interfaced with end-of-life care, 661
        introduction, 657–658
         palliative care in, 661–666
        barriers to, 663–664
        described, 661–662
        reasons for, 662–663
        sedation in, 665
        spiritual and emotional support of patients and families, 665
        structuring of, 663
         withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments in, 665–666
        Cardiovascular system
         intermittent positive pressure ventilation effects on, 621–622
         PEEP effects on, 622–623
         spontaneous breathing in
        effect of, 620–621
        Cardioversion
         anticoagulants for, 539
        CardioWest TAH, 590–591
        Catheter(s)
         pulmonary artery, 545–565. See also Pulmonary artery catheters (PACs)
        Catheter-directed thrombectomy
         in PE management, 510–511
        CCU. See Cardiac care unit (CCU)
        CentriMag
         in CS management, 575
        Chronic systolic heart failure
         PAC in, 558
        CICU. See Cardiac intensive care unit (CICU)
        Communication issues
         in cardiovascular ICU, 664–665
        Conduction disturbances
         TAVR and, 615
        Congenital heart disease
         VT in patients with, 600
        Congenital LQTS
         VT in patients with, 601
        Congestive cardiac failure
         NIV for, 627–630
        Coronary care unit
         to cardiovascular ICU, 485–492. See also Cardiac critical care, evolution of
         evolution of, 582
        Coronary perfusion pressure
         in PE management, 512
        CPVT
         VT in patients with, 601–602
        CS. See Cardiogenic shock (CS)

        D

        Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
         acute
        in CCU
        management of, 539
        Device alarms and “code” situations
         mechanical circulatory support for, 589
        Drug therapy
         in CS management, 572–573
         for ventricular arrhythmias, 598–599
        DVT. See Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

        E

        ECMO. See Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
        Embolectomy
         pulmonary
        in PE management, 509–510
        Embolism
         pulmonary
        massive, 503–518. See also Pulmonary embolism (PE)
        Emotional support
         in palliative care in cardiovascular ICU, 665
        End-of-life care
         interface of ethics and, 661
        ES
         defined, 602
        Ethical issues
         in cardiovascular ICU, 657–661. See also Cardiovascular intensive care unit (ICU), ethical issues in
        External defibrillation and cardioversion
         in ventricular arrhythmia management, 596–597
        Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
         in CS management, 574–575

        F

        Fever
         TAVR and, 614
        Fibrinolysis
         in PE management, 508–509
        Free wall rupture
         ACI and, 575
         LV
        AMI and, 527–528
        Futility
         in cardiovascular ICU, 660–661

        H

        Heart(s)
         structurally normal
        VT in patients with, 600–602
        Heart disease
         congenital
        VT in patients with, 600
         structural
        VT in, 599–600
        Heart failure
         advanced
        durable mechanical circulatory support in, 581–593
        for arrhythmias, 586–587
        for bleeding, 587–588
        clinical profiles and device selection, 582–583
        device alarms and “code” situations, 589
        future directions in, 591–592
        for hypertension and hypotension, 586
        for infections, 588–589
        long-term devices, 583–584
        monitoring device function, 585–586
        for right heart failure, 589–591
        for thrombosis, 588
        troubleshooting, 584–591
         congestive
        NIV for, 627–630
         hospitalizations due to, 581
         right
        durable mechanical circulatory support for, 589–591
         systolic
        chronic
        PAC in, 558
        Heart transplantation
         orthotopic
        VT in patients after, 600
         PAC after, 559
        Hypertension
         mechanical circulatory support for, 586
         pulmonary
        PAC in, 558–559
        Hypertensive syndromes, 493–501
        Hyperthermia
         after MTH, 646, 649
        Hypotension
         mechanical circulatory support for, 586
         TAVR and, 611–612
        Hypothermia
         after CA
        with initial nonshockable rhythm, 640
        with initial shockable rhythm, 639–640
         therapeutic
        in CS management, 576–577
        mild
        after CA, 637–655. See also Mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH), after CA

        I

        IABP. See Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP)
        ICD. See Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)
        ICU. See also Intensive care unit (ICU)
        Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT)
         VT in patients with, 602
        Impella Recover 2.5
         in CS management, 574
        Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)
         in ventricular arrhythmia management, 598
        Infection(s)
         mechanical circulatory support for, 588–589
        Inferior vena cava filter
         in PE management, 513
        Intensive care unit (ICU)
         cardiovascular
        from coronary care unit to, 485–492. See also Cardiac critical care, evolution of
         PE management in, 511
        Intermittent positive pressure ventilation
         cardiovascular system effects of, 621–622
        Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP)
         in CS management, 573–574
        Ischemic cardiomyopathy
         revascularized patients with
        VT in, 599

        L

        Left cardiac sympathetic denervation
         in ventricular arrhythmia management, 598
        Left ventricular (LV) free wall
         rupture of
        AMI and, 527–528
        Leukocytosis
         TAVR and, 614
        Life-sustaining treatments
         in cardiovascular ICU
        withdrawal of, 665–666
        Long QT syndrome (LQTS)
         congenital
        VT in patients with, 601
        LQTS. See Long QT syndrome (LQTS)
        LV free wall. See Left ventricular (LV) free wall

        M

        Mechanical circulatory support
         advanced
        in CS management, 574–575
         in advanced heart failure, 581–593. See also Heart failure, advanced, durable mechanical circulatory support in
         in CS management, 577
         withdrawal of
        in cardiovascular ICU, 666
        Mechanical heart valve prostheses
         in CCU, 540
        Mechanical support
         in PE management, 512–513
        Mechanical ventilation (MV)
         in CICU
        indications for, 623–624
         withdrawal of
        in cardiovascular ICU, 665–666
        MI. See also Myocardial infarction (MI)
        Mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH)
         after CA, 637–655
        application of, 640–642
        future directions in, 649
        hyperthermia after, 646, 649
        indications for, 640
        induction of, 640–641
        maintenance of, 641
        outcomes after, 646–649
        problems encountered during, 642–646
        cardiac conditions, 646
        prognostication, 646
        shivering, 642, 644–646
        protective effects of, 638–639
        rationale for, 637
        rewarming, 641–642
        temperature monitoring in, 642
        Mitral regurgitation (MR)
         acute
        AMI and, 524–527. See also Acute mitral regurgitation (MR)
        MTH. See Mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH)
        MV. See Mechanical ventilation (MV)
        Myocardial infarction (MI)
         acute
        mechanical complications of, 519–531. See also Acute myocardial infarction (AMI), mechanical complications of

        N

        Nitric oxide (NO) inhibition
         in CS management, 576
        NIV. See Noninvasive ventilation (NIV)
        Non acute coronary syndromes (ACSs)
         PAC in, 556–558
        Noninvasive ventilation (NIV)
         in congestive cardiac failure and acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, 627–630
        Nonischemic cardiomyopathy
         VT in patients with, 599–600
        Nutrition
         in cardiac critical care after TAVR, 611

        O

        Orthotopic heart transplantation
         VT in patients after, 600
        Oxygenation
         in ventilator management in CICU, 624–626

        P

        Pacemaker(s)
         permanent
        withdrawal of
        in cardiovascular ICU, 666
        Pacing
         in ventricular arrhythmia management, 598
        PACs. See Pulmonary artery catheters (PACs)
        Palliative care
         in cardiovascular ICU, 661–666. See also Cardiovascular intensive care unit (ICU), palliative care in
         described, 661–662
        Papillary muscle rupture
         ACI and, 575–576
        PE. See Pulmonary embolism (PE)
        PEEP. See Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP)
        Percutaneous LV assist devices
         in CS management, 574
        Percutaneous ventricular assist devices (pVADs)
         randomized trials of
        in CS management, 574
        Platelet inhibitor drugs
         in CCU
        limitations of, 534
        Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP)
         cardiovascular system effects of, 622–623
        Pulmonary artery catheters (PACs), 545–565
         balloon floatation catheter placement and hemodynamic measurements, 546–550
         in cardiac output determination, 550–552
         clinical applications of, 552–559
        ACSs, 552–554
        mechanical complications–related, 555–556
        cardiac catheterization laboratory, 552
        chronic systolic heart failure, 558
        non ACSs, 556–558
        pulmonary hypertension, 558–559
        RV-MI, 554–555
        transplantation, 559
         complications of, 559–560
         controversial issues related to, 560–561
         evolution of, 545–546
         indications for, 561–562
         introduction, 545
         PA data from, 552
        Pulmonary edema
         acute cardiogenic
        NIV for, 627–630
        Pulmonary embolectomy
         in PE management, 509–510
        Pulmonary embolism (PE), 503–518
         acute
        in CCU
        management of, 539–540
         classification of, 503–504
         clinical presentation of, 504–505
         diagnosis of, 505–507
         introduction, 503–504
         management of, 507–514
        anticoagulation in, 508
        long-term, 513–514
        catheter-directed thrombectomy in, 510–511
        coronary perfusion pressure in, 512
        described, 507
        fibrinolysis in, 508–509
        in ICU, 511
        inferior vena cava filter in, 513
        mechanical support in, 512–513
        outcomes of, 514
        pulmonary embolectomy in, 509–510
        RV afterload in, 512
        RV contractility in, 512
        RV preload optimization in, 511–512
         massive, 503–518
         pathophysiology of, 504
         prevalence of, 503
         risk stratification in, 505–507
        Pulmonary hypertension
         PAC in, 558–559
        pVADs. See Percutaneous ventricular assist devices (pVADs)

        R

        Radiofrequency catheter ablation
         in ventricular arrhythmia management, 598
        Reperfusion
         in CS management, 571–572
        Right heart failure
         mechanical circulatory support for, 589–591
        Right ventricular (RV)-myocardial infarction (MI)
         PAC in, 554–555
        Right ventricular (RV) afterload
         in PE management, 512
        Right ventricular (RV) contractility
         in PE management, 512
        Right ventricular (RV) infarction, 576
        Right ventricular (RV) preload
         optimization of
        in PE management, 511–512
        RV-MI. See Right ventricular (RV)-myocardial infarction (MI)
        RV preload. See Right ventricular (RV) preload

        S

        Shared decision making
         in cardiovascular ICU
        ethical issues related to, 659
        Shivering
         MTH after CA and, 642, 644–646
        Shock
         cardiogenic, 567–580. See also Cardiogenic shock (CS)
        Spiritual support
         in palliative care in cardiovascular ICU, 665
        Spontaneous breathing
         cardiovascular system effects of, 620–621
        Stroke
         TAVR and, 614–615
        Structural heart disease
         VT in, 599–600
        SynCardia TAH, 590

        T

        Tachycardia(s)
         ventricular. See Ventricular tachycardia (VT)
        TADD. See Type A aortic dissection (TADD)
        TandemHeart
         in CS management, 574
        TAVR. See Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)
        TBAD. See Type B aortic dissection (TBAD)
        TdP
         VT in patients with, 600
        Temperature management
         in CA survivors, 637–655. See also Cardiac arrest (CA), targeted temperature management in survivors of; Mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH), after CA
        Therapeutic hypothermia
         in CS management, 576–577
        Thrombectomy
         catheter-directed
        in PE management, 510–511
        Thromboembolism
         venous
        acute
        in CCU
        management of, 539
        Thrombosis
         deep vein. See Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
         mechanical circulatory support for, 588
        Total artificial heart, 590–591
        Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)
         cardiac critical care after, 607–618
        complications of, 611–616
        acute anemia, 612–614
        AKI, 615–616
        conduction disturbances, 615
        fever, 614
        hypotension, 611–612
        leukocytosis, 614
        new-onset AF, 614–615
        stroke, 614–615
        vascular, 612–614
        global approach to, 610
        managing ventilator in, 610–611
        optimizing nutrition in, 611
        postprocedure communication, 610
        preparation for, 608–610
        hemodynamic changes–related, 609–610
        patient-related, 608
        procedure-related, 608–609
         described, 607–608
        Transplantation
         heart
        orthotopic
        VT in patients after, 600
        PAC after, 559
        Type A aortic dissection (TADD)
         surgical management of, 497–498
        Type B aortic dissection (TBAD)
         management of, 498–499

        V

        VADs. See Ventricular assist devices (VADs)
        Vascular system
         TAVR and, 612–614
        Venous thromboembolism (VTE)
         acute
        in CCU
        management of, 539
        Ventilation
         intermittent positive pressure
        cardiovascular system effects of, 621–622
         noninvasive
        in congestive cardiac failure and acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, 627–630
        Ventilator(s)
         in cardiac critical care after TAVR, 610–611
         in CICU
        management of, 619–636. See also Cardiac intensive care unit (CICU), ventilator management in
        Ventricular arrhythmias, 595–605. See also Ventricular tachycardia (VT)
         epidemiology of, 595
         immediate considerations regarding, 595–596
         introduction, 595
         management of
        ICD and pacing in, 598
        left cardiac sympathetic denervation in, 598
        nonpharmacologic modalities in, 596–598
        pharmacotherapy in, 598–599
        RFA in, 598
         prognostic significance of, 595
        Ventricular assist devices (VADs)
         VT in patients with, 600
        Ventricular septal rupture
         ACI and, 575
         AMI and, 519–524
        controversial issues related to, 522–523
        diagnosis of, 520–521
        introduction, 519–520
        operative technique, 521–522
        outcomes of, 523
        pathophysiology of, 520
        preoperative resuscitation and optimization for, 521
        Ventricular tachycardia (VT). See also Ventricular arrhythmias
         after cardiac surgery, 600
         after orthotopic heart transplantation, 600
         in AMI patients, 599
         in Brugada syndrome patients, 600
         in congenital heart disease patients, 600
         in congenital LQTS patients, 601
         in CPVT patients, 601–602
         idiopathic
        VT in patients with, 602
         in idiopathic VT patients, 602
         in nonischemic cardiomyopathy patients, 599–600
         in patients with structural heart disease, 599–600
         in patients with structurally normal hearts, 600–602
         in patients with VADs, 600
         in revascularized patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, 599
         in TdP patients, 600
        VT. See Ventricular tachycardia (VT)
        VTE. See Venous thromboembolism (VTE)